(Mahram is must for woman’s travel)
According to divine laws, a woman can not travel, by any mode of transport i.e. by car, train or aeroplane for any worldly business or religious duty without a Mahram.
Reported by Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbas that the messenger of Allah said; A man (Na-Mahram) for a woman, should not stay with a woman when there is no other or in seclusion. Neither a woman should travel without a Mahram. Hearing this, a man said; O, Apostle of God, I have been enrolled for Jihad while my wife has proceeded for Hajj. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said; You go to Hajj with your wife. (Bukhari & Muslim)
This prohibition is for women of all ages. Some women think that they can undertake the journey in company of several other women without a Mahram. This thinking is wrong. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) has said with emphasis about this prohibition. Even a journey for Umrah or Hajj without the Husband or Mahram is not permitted and is a sin. Those women who proceed on journey for Umrah or Hajj without the company of Mahram against the Divine law become sinners. Their Umrah or Hajj bears no significance.
Who is Mahram
All those men with whom a Muslim woman can not marry are Mahram for her. They are father, brother, maternal / paternal grandsons, son-in-law, real maternal / paternal uncles.
Maternal / paternal cousins are Non-Mahrams and a woman can marry with them. A woman’s brother-in-law is also considered to be non-Mahram since after the death or divorce to her sister she can marry him.
A woman should avoid traveling with a Mahram whose character is of dubious nature. An adopted father, brother or son also falls in category of Non-Mahram. They are just like any other stranger.
Ihram of Ladies
The conditions of Ihram for ladies are almost the same as for men. Ladies can, however, wear their normal dress whereas men has to don two pieces of white cloth as Ihram. Ladies, too, are to take bath, perform ablution, offer two rakat optional prayer, declare intent (Niyah) and recite Talbiyah (the formula prayer). The other restrictions too are almost identical.
If a woman passing through her menstrual course, she can performs ablution only but should not offer the optional prayer. She should sit on prayer mat facing the direction of Ka`aba, remove any cover from her face, declare the intent (Niyah) of Umrah and recite Talbiyah three times in low voice and Drood-e-Sharif.
If a woman has to cross the Meeqat while she is still in the menstrual cycle, she can put on Ihram, declare the intent of Umrah and recite the Talbiyah. However, while in Mak`kah she will have to wait for coming out of the menstrual cycle before performing Tawaf and Saee.
- Ladies can use all their usual wear including shoes but will not put any cover on their face.
Veil for Ladies
According to Divine Laws, veil or cover for woman in Islam is obligatory in all circumstances. It is sin for a Muslim woman to discard veil and mix up with men. Muslim woman should desist form this sin.
There is a misconception in certain quarters that while on Umrah or Hajj pilgrimage, all Non-Mahrams become like real brother and sister. This is wrong.
Veil or cover is a divine order and has to be observed as an obligation. Ladies are cautioned to be more careful about veil or covering themselves while in Mak`kah or Madina in view of the sanctity of these two houses.
Observance of Purdah while in Ihram
Purdah or covering is obligatory for women while in Ihram during the performance of Umrah or Hajj, despite that she can not cover the face. Yet to observe the condition of veil they can put on special type of hat with extended shade. A very thin cloth is attached with this shade that will function like veil but it should not touch the face skin. Due care has to be taken while using this veil attached hat.
Miscellaneous Issues & Propositions
Some women consider that putting on a white scarf on head as a necessity and part of the Ihram. This is not correct since a woman has to use a scarf to protect her hairs from falling or to keep the hairs covered from Na-Mahrams, but the scarf should not be considered as part of Ihram.
Some women while performing ablution do not remove their head scarf and simply rub the scarf covered head with wet hands. This is incorrect and the ablution remains incomplete. They can not offer prayer with an incomplete ablution. They should remove the scarf for ablution and rub the hairs with wet hands (Masah)
- While in the state of Ihram, use of scent, perfume, covering the face, cutting the hairs or nails, sexual contacts are prohibited.
Ladies should not mix up with men, as much as they can in Tawaf or Saee. However if there is some compelling reason, like Tawaf-e-Ziarat with shortage of time, a women can perform Tawaf at the outer periphery of Mutaf, which is usually less crowded, with due care as to avoid the rubbing with men. They can perform Tawaf on upper floors, which are usually not so crowded.
- Women should not try to kiss the Black Stone in a crowded condition. They can make a gesture of simulated touching.
- If there is crowd at the place of Abraham, women can say their prayer at any other place in Haram but facing place of Abraham.
If some women start menstruating just after Umrah Tawaf, she can perform Saee and cut her hairs as prescribed, thus completing the Umrah rites. However she can not offer the optional thanksgiving prayer due after Tawaf and Saee in such state. Place of Saee is not part of Haram.
- In the Saee procession, women need not to accelerate their pace in the space marked by green posts. It is obligatory only for men.
- It is unlawful and forbidden for ladies to shave off their head altogether.
For a symbolic cutting of hairs after Saee, women should take help of another woman or otherwise of a man who is Mahram to her. She should stretch her hairs in three parts and trim them equal to about two inches to two and half inches that will cover all lengths of hairs.
- Ladies are equally rewarded by Almighty God if they say their prayers at their place of stay during Hajj and Umrah as if they have prayed in Ka`abah or Masjid-e-Nabvi.
Ladies are not bound to offer their prayers in congregation in Ka`abah or in the Prophet’s mosque in Madina. However they can visit the two houses for fulfilling the rituals associated with Umrah, Tawaf, Saee or Ziarat.
Ladies can come to Prophet’s mosque (Masjid-e-Nabvi) to offer their salaam and compliments to the Holy Prophet (PBHH) and if it is time for a regular prayer they can stay and join the prayer. Yet it is preferable for ladies to say their prayer at their place of stay.
- A woman can stay in Waqoof at Arafat and Muzdalfa even if she is in menstruating cycle. For these rites it is not conditional for women to be clean.
Women in the cycle of menstruation can not perform Tawaf-e-Ifada (Ziarat). They should wait to come out of this menstruation period even if the 12th of ZilHijja passes away. There is no haram. They can go round the House for Tawaf followed by Saee after becoming clean and later can perform Tawaf-e-Ifada (Ziarat). No atonement falls due in this particular circumstances.
If a woman by virtue of her habit and experience is expecting the start of mensuration, yet there is some time in which she can perform whole of Tawaf-e-Ziarat or a minimum of four circles around the House, she must do so If, however, she waited and started menstruating and three days of Hajj passed away, she will have to immolate an animal. If the time fell too short of her expectation that four rounds of circling the House could not be performed there will be no compensation due.
A woman who has completed all the rites of Hajj except the farewell Tawaf (Tawaf-e-Wida) but she can not wait due to departure times having arrived, and starts menstruating she is excused of this Farewell Tawaf. She needs not to enter the mosque in an unclean state. She can invocate form outside the mosque.
If a woman left Mak`kah in an state of menstruation foregoing the Farewell Tawaf but before crossing out of the boundary limits of Mak`kah menstruation stopped, she is bound to return back and perform Farewell Tawaf (Wida). Yet if she has crossed over the limits of Mak`kah, after which she came out of the unclean state, she need not to return back. If she returned to Mak`kah without crossing the limits of Meeqat, she will be under the obligation to perform Tawaf-e-Wida (Farewell).
There is no need of a particular declaration of intent for Tawaf-e-Wida. If a woman has performed one or two optional Tawaf before going into the menstruation cycle, she need not to wait any more. Her optional Tawaf shall be deemed as Farewell Tawaf (Wida)
While in Madina, if a woman could not complete all the forty prayers due to start of menstruation cycle, God in His Mercy shall excuse her since the ordeal was beyond her control. She can invocate as much as she can on every hour of prayer after performing the ablution. This invocation is enough for her.
Ladies who except the menstruation just during the days of Hajj or Umrah, they should consult their Doctor and take some medicine that can stop the menstruation temporarily. Yet they should use the medicines only for the days of Hajj or Umrah and not for longer period and repeatedly which may create harmful effect.
Women Not Allowed To Mix with Men
It has been noted that some women, in Haram (the sacred mosque) forcibly make their place for prayer among men. This is not permitted in Divine Laws (Shariat). It is reminded that prayer of three men, on left, right and front, is spoiled if a woman is standing close to them during congregation without any physical obstruction, disregarding even the family relationship between them. It is therefore necessary that women should form their group and rows separate from men. However, if a man and a woman are offering their prayer, in individual capacity (not behind a common prayer leader) their closeness shall not have any adverse effect.
There are two types of Hajj travel facilities available in Pakistan.
Having submitted the application for Hajj an intending Haji should familiarise and try to know each and every thing.
Every Haji should know and understand his duties owed to God (Huqooq Allah), his duties and responsibilities towards fellow human beings (Huqooq-ul-Ibad). God forgives things which is owed to him by his servants, if He please, provided the sinner repents and affirms not to repeat such acts..
- Every pilgrim should have well acquaintance with his group leader and other members of the group.
Essential items to be carried by an Haji are: More...
- (A) The Excellence of Tawaf
- (B) Kinds of Tawaf
- (C) Rules and Etiquettes of Tawaf
- Ehram for travelers by air